The Ruby Falls and Merlot are the result of 12 years of breeding by Dr Dennis Werner head of breeding at the North Carolina State University, USA. They represent remarkable breakthroughs in hybrid crosses between differing formats and species and are the first in what will be a progression of new and exciting cultivars in the coming years. It was many years ago in the early days of this breeding work that I had the privilege of being taken to the field where the plants were and seeing different cultivars grown side by side under small nets with bees inside to perform the pollination required. This was but the beginning of the process of developing these cultivars. The tenacity required by Dr Dennis Werner to develop the Ruby Falls and Merlot is a tribute to breeders of plants everywhere.